Bwa single end reads. A reference genome for pea provides insight into legume genome evolution

Phylogenetics and paleogenomics show genomic rearrangements across legumes and suggest a major role for repetitive elements in pea genome evolution.

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Compared to other sequenced Leguminosae genomes, the pea genome shows intense gene dynamics, most likely associated with genome size expansion when the Fabeae diverged from its sister tribes.

During Pisum evolution, translocation and transposition differentially occurred across lineages. This bwa single end reads sequence will accelerate our understanding of the molecular basis of agronomically important traits and support crop improvement.

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Pea belongs to the Leguminosae or Fabaceaewhich includes cool season grain legumes from the Galegoid clade, such as pea, lentil Lens culinaris Medik. It provides significant ecosystem services: it is a valuable source of dietary proteins, mineral nutrients, complex starch and fibers with demonstrated health benefits 1234 and its symbiosis with N-fixing soil bacteria reduces the need for applied N fertilizers so mitigating greenhouse gas emissions 567.

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Merr Yet, pea has been studied as a genetic model since the eighteenth century; the analysis of the inheritance of different pea morphotypes led Gregor Mendel to uncover the laws of genetics Several nach kennenlernen developmental mutations have since been characterized 14 and chromosomal regions controlling agronomic traits identified 15but tools exploiting pea diversity for plant breeding, identifying favorable alleles underlying phenotypic variations and accelerating trait improvement by marker-assisted selection have been limited.

The pea genome is large, probably resulting from a recent expansion and diversification of retrotransposons When the repetitive DNA sequences of pea, soybean and M. Repetitive sequences between pea and M.

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The pea karyotype includes two sub-metacentric 1 and 2 and five acrocentric 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 chromosomes Several major rearrangements, including translocations between nonhomologous chromosomes, have been reported 2021 Technological innovation now enables the sequencing and assembly of large genomes, bridging the bwa single end reads between models and crops for quantitative trait analysis and genome-wide breeding approaches.

Accordingly, an international consortium was formed to produce a reference genome sequence for pea.

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It provides insights into legume genome evolution, with resequencing data for 42 wild, landrace and cultivar Pisum genotypes, revealing genomic events that have shaped the evolution of this large and diverse genus. Results Genome sequencing and assembly Complementary approaches were combined to obtain the pea reference genome assembly Supplementary Fig.

Scaffolds were manually curated for inter and intrachromosomal chimeras using 1 sequences obtained from single chromosomes isolated by flow-cytometry 24 Supplementary Fig. Curated scaffolds were then integrated into 24, super-scaffolds L50 of kilobases kbSupplementary Table 2 using BioNano maps Supplementary Table 3 and Supplementary Table 4.